# Classical mechanics

## Table of Contents

- Definitions physics
- Lagrangian physicslagrangian
- units of energy physicslagrangian
- no single expression for all physical systems physicslagrangian
- only applicable to systems with holonomic constraints physicslagrangian
- Why only first derivatives are appearing physicslagrangian
- Independent position and velocity physicslagrangian
- in a sense these are initial conditions so both are necessary physicslagrangian
- TODO Let me refer to this great book: "Applied Differential Geometry". By William L. Burke. The very first line of the book (where an author usually says to whom this book is devoted) is this: "To all those who like me have wondered how in the hell you can change q' without changing q" physicslagrangian
- https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/119992/what-do-the-derivatives-in-these-hamilton-equations-mean physicslagrangian
- another explanation from the same guy https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/60706/lagrangian-mechanics-and-time-derivative-on-general-coordinates physicslagrangian
- TODO interesting point that var(q') = d/dt var(q) (why?) https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/985/40624 physicslagrangian
- TODO might be insightful?… https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/2895/40624 physicslagrangian
- https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/168551/independence-of-position-and-velocity-in-lagrangian-from-the-point-of-view-of-ph – not sure if useful… physicslagrangian
- TODO https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/60706/lagrangian-mechanics-and-time-derivative-on-general-coordinates – not sure if useful.. physicslagrangian

- For every symmetry, there is a conserved quantity physicslagrangian
- Einstein was not satisfied about GR until he derived it from lagrangian (as an indication how powerful is the concept) https://www.reddit.com/r/Physics/comments/3me1hr/explanation_of_lagrangian_mechanics/cveb611/ physicslagrangian
- reddit recommends Taylor's book physicslagrangian
- as an analogy: when you learn energy, dealing with forces is much easier; when you learn lagrangian, dealing with crazy coordinates and constraints much easier physicslagrangian
- When you find the Euler-Lagrange equations for your system, they will be written in terms of these generalized coordinates, and the terms in the equations are known as generalized forces. This is because usually the Euler-Lagrange equations have something that looks a lot like "ma" (mass times acceleration) on one side of the equations, and thus the other terms could be interpreted as "forces", but written in these general variables. physicslagrangian
- TODO http://cp3-origins.dk/a/14332 physicslagrangiantoblog
- Galilean invariance forces classical lagrangian to depend on velocity quadratically physicslagrangian
- physicslagrangian classical mechanics - Deriving the Lagrangian for a free particle - Physics Stack Exchange https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/23098/deriving-the-lagrangian-for-a-free-particle
- physicslagrangian classical mechanics - Why does Lagrangian of free particle depend on the square of the velocity ? - Physics Stack Exchange
- [C] newtonian mechanics - Galilean invariance of Lagrangian for non-relativistic free point particle? - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian

- TODO Degenerate Lagrangian? - My Math Forum physicslagrangian
- physicslagrangian What does a Lagrangian of the form \(L=m^2\dot x^4 +U(x)\dot x^2 -W(x)\) represent? - Physics Stack Exchange
- STRT on Lagrangian being extreme value/minimum physicslagrangiantoblog
- physicslagrangiantoblog lagrangian formalism - Confusion regarding the principle of least action in Landau & Lifshitz "The Classical Theory of Fields" - Physics Stack Exchange
- physicslagrangiantoblog lagrangian formalism - Hamilton's Principle - Physics Stack Exchange
- physicslagrangiantoblog http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Principle_of_least_action#When_Action_is_a_Minimum
- physicslagrangiantoblog Even more trivial example when least action principle doesn't work: Принцип наименьшего действия. Часть 2 / Хабр

- TODO Лагранжиан L {\displaystyle L} L называется вырожденным, если его оператор Эйлера — Лагранжа удовлетворяет нетривиальным тождествам Нётер. В этом случае уравнения Эйлера — Лагранжа не являются независимыми physicslagrangian

- physics
Legendre transform
- physics nice intuition in terms of areas https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/69374/40624
- physicslagrangian
Преобразование Лежандра — Википедия https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%9B%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B0
- physicslagrangian В том случае, когда лагранжиан не вырожден по скоростям, то есть

- physics Making Sense of the Legendre Transform
- So the Fourier transform and the Legendre transform may be interpreted as the same thing, just over different semirings. http://blog.sigfpe.com/2005/10/quantum-mechanics-and-fourier-legendre.html physics
- https://physicstravelguide.com/advanced_tools/legendre_transformation#tab__concrete (Legendre transformation is "zero temperature limit" of the Laplace Transformation) physics
- http://blog.jessriedel.com/2017/06/28/legendre-transform/ physics

- TODO Hamiltonian physics
- has some meaning in statistical physics physics
- TODO something about Poisson brackets physics
- configuration space with dimension n: 2n Hamilton equations of first order; n Euler-Lagrange of second order physics
- Hamiltonians are easier to find transformations to canonical coordinates physics
- physics
is hamiltonian same thing as energy?
- TODO https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/11905/when-is-the-hamiltonian-of-a-system-not-equal-to-its-total-energy?noredirect=1&lq=1 physics
- physics classical mechanics - Example where Hamiltonian \(H \neq T+V=E\), but \(E=T+V\) is conserved - Physics Stack Exchange

- [A] Post about lagrangians? physicstoblog
- TODO [B] Please provide nonexamples or made up examples. If they are technical even a prompt for where to look would be good. It's way harder to google if you dont know what to google physicstobloglagrangian
- [C] Kevin Boone's Web site http://www.kevinboone.net/gateaux.html physicstobloglagrangian
- STRT [C] about euler lagrange equations and runge kutta? physicstoblog
- STRT writing about my experiments with lagrangian physicstobloglagrangian

- STRT [B] physics sim for phase space
*repos/physics-sim*physicsstudyvizlagrangian - TODO [B] additional term depending on velocity is kinda like time transformation? physicstostudylagrangian
- [B] How are symmetries precisely defined? - Physics Stack Exchange physics
- -----–— physics -------–— review later…
- [C] homework and exercises - Lagrangian in a system with a specific velocity dependent potential - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian
- ------–— physics ---------–— needs review
- STRT [B] baez lagrangian mechanics http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/classical/ physicsbaez
- STRT [B] Are the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian always convex functions? - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian
- physicslagrangian also good answer, basically explaining that it's not great to impose convexity conditions on only one set of canonical coordinates https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/104279/40624
- physicslagrangian https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/103997/are-the-hamiltonian-and-lagrangian-always-convex-functions#comment760950_339519

- [B] Proof by Picture physicsviz
- STRT [B] book: Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics physics
- [C] classification of critical points: Notes & HW for Section 6.1 physics
- TODO [A] Ostrogradsky's theorem on Hamiltonian instability - Scholarpedia physicslagrangians
- physicslagrangianstoblog ok, seems sort of relevant about the term with squared velocity in the lagrangian?

- [B] Lagrangian formalism for fields - Scholarpedia physicslagrangianspinor
- physicslagrangianspinor pretty good motivation for the shape of lagrangian and examples with different kinds of fields

- [C] Derivation of one-dimensional Euler–Lagrange equation physics
- [B] Valentin Fadeev (@ValFadeev) on Twitter: "Hamiltonian or Lagrangian? Why choose when you can have the best of both (provided you have some cyclic coordinates). Enter Routhian. From L&L "Mechanics" §41. physics
- STRT [B] Chapter 7. Lagrangian Mechanics physics
- [C] action principle for SR http://fma.if.usp.br/~amsilva/Livros/Zwiebach/chapter5.pdf physicsrelativity
- TODO [C] Zero Hamiltonian and its energies | Physics Forums physics
- physics eh, they are talking about invariance by reparametrization, but I don't think I really understand what they mean…

- TODO [C] hmm, to visualise phase trajectories, we can just do 3D plot, then we know that the particle is moving along isolines physicshamiltonianviz
- TODO [C] Isotropic lagrangian velocity physicslagrangian
- physicslagrangian Now since space is isotropic, L should be independent of velocity v⃗ , and should in fact be a function of |v⃗ |2.

- STRT [C] discrete lagrangian? vary it on space of matrices?? physicsthink
- physicsthink https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variational_integrator

- TODO [C] Задачка на Лагранжиан : Помогите решить / разобраться (Ф) - Страница 3 physics
- [C] In classical mechanics, the state of a system is determined by a point in phase space physicslagrangian
- [C] lagrangian formalism - What is the difference between a complex scalar field and two real scalar fields? - Physics Stack Exchange physics
- [C] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostrogradsky_instability – explanation why differential equations of orders higher than two do not appear in physics physicsmathdiffeq
- physicsmathdiffeq http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Ostrogradsky%27s_theorem_on_Hamiltonian_instability more detailed explanation

- [C] http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~idolga/lecturenotes.html physicsmathlagrangian
- [C] What is a Lagrangian? What is the action? Why does the principle of least (stationary) action work? : askscience physicslagrangian
- TODO [C] Book
_{Chapter}_{Lagrangian.pdf}https://drive.google.com/file/d/11dVJarBOuYpYXpfY-Jnu4pyp-_mQop5b/view physics- physics other stuff is interesting as well http://physics-quest.org/

- [B] Introduction to the Modern Theory of Dynamical Systems - Anatole Katok, Boris Hasselblatt - Google Books physicslagrangian
- TODO [D] Griffith classical mechanics physics
- [D] Classical Mechanics physics
- reddit: hamiltonian vs lagrangian physics
- [C] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_coordinates physicsdrill
- [D] some random notes physicslagrangianhamiltonian
- [A] Noether’s Theorem – A Quick Explanation (2019) physics
- STRT [B] Phase plane analysis: examples physicstoblog
- physicstoblog useful for they see me flowin they hatin

- [C] Lagrangian formulation of GR physicslagrangiangrelativity

## ¶Definitions physics

### ¶A nonholonomic system – state depends on the path taken in order to achieve it. physics

### ¶DONE Phase space vs configuration space physics

## ¶Lagrangian physicslagrangian

### ¶units of energy physicslagrangian

### ¶no single expression for all physical systems physicslagrangian

### ¶only applicable to systems with holonomic constraints physicslagrangian

### ¶Why only first derivatives are appearing physicslagrangian

### ¶Independent position and velocity physicslagrangian

#### ¶in a sense these are initial conditions so both are necessary physicslagrangian

#### ¶TODO Let me refer to this great book: "Applied Differential Geometry". By William L. Burke. The very first line of the book (where an author usually says to whom this book is devoted) is this: "To all those who like me have wondered how in the hell you can change q' without changing q" physicslagrangian

#### ¶https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/119992/what-do-the-derivatives-in-these-hamilton-equations-mean physicslagrangian

q and q' are just labels, treat them independently

good points about meaning in the very end

#### ¶another explanation from the same guy https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/60706/lagrangian-mechanics-and-time-derivative-on-general-coordinates physicslagrangian

#### ¶TODO interesting point that var(q') = d/dt var(q) (why?) https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/985/40624 physicslagrangian

#### ¶TODO might be insightful?… https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/2895/40624 physicslagrangian

#### ¶https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/168551/independence-of-position-and-velocity-in-lagrangian-from-the-point-of-view-of-ph – not sure if useful… physicslagrangian

#### ¶TODO https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/60706/lagrangian-mechanics-and-time-derivative-on-general-coordinates – not sure if useful.. physicslagrangian

### ¶For every symmetry, there is a conserved quantity physicslagrangian

### ¶Einstein was not satisfied about GR until he derived it from lagrangian (as an indication how powerful is the concept) https://www.reddit.com/r/Physics/comments/3me1hr/explanation_of_lagrangian_mechanics/cveb611/ physicslagrangian

### ¶reddit recommends Taylor's book physicslagrangian

### ¶as an analogy: when you learn energy, dealing with forces is much easier; when you learn lagrangian, dealing with crazy coordinates and constraints much easier physicslagrangian

### ¶When you find the Euler-Lagrange equations for your system, they will be written in terms of these generalized coordinates, and the terms in the equations are known as generalized forces. This is because usually the Euler-Lagrange equations have something that looks a lot like "ma" (mass times acceleration) on one side of the equations, and thus the other terms could be interpreted as "forces", but written in these general variables. physicslagrangian

### ¶TODO http://cp3-origins.dk/a/14332 physicslagrangiantoblog

When the action, and hence the phase, is stationary changing it by a small amount doesn’t change the phase by much. In a small region (compared to ℏ) these paths can add up coherently to give a significant contribution to the sum above. This is what we see in the cartoon above for a very small subset of paths. Classical mechanics is quantum mechanics using the stationary phase approximation.

#### ¶hmm, interesting about Wick rotation… physicslagrangiantoblog

Paths far from the minimum hardly contribute anything and so it isn’t necessary to calculate the action arbitrarily accurately.

eh?

### ¶Galilean invariance forces classical lagrangian to depend on velocity quadratically physicslagrangian

#### ¶ classical mechanics - Deriving the Lagrangian for a free particle - Physics Stack Exchange https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/23098/deriving-the-lagrangian-for-a-free-particle physicslagrangian

justification of lagrangian for classical mechanics from Landau… weird, didn't really get it

#### ¶ classical mechanics - Why does Lagrangian of free particle depend on the square of the velocity ? - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian

The Lagrangian should not only be independent of the direction of v⃗ v→ but it should also change correctly under a Galilean transformation. For instance, if KK and K′K′ are two frames of reference with a relative velocity V⃗ V→ then the two Lagrangians LL and L′L′ should differ only by a total time derivative.

#### ¶[C] newtonian mechanics - Galilean invariance of Lagrangian for non-relativistic free point particle? - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian

### ¶TODO Degenerate Lagrangian? - My Math Forum physicslagrangian

a degenerate Lagrangian is one who's Hesse determinant is zero. It's a condition on the second partial derivatives of the Lagrangian.

there is also a link to pdf, might be worth reading…

### ¶ What does a Lagrangian of the form \(L=m^2\dot x^4 +U(x)\dot x^2 -W(x)\) represent? - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian

eh, weird. complex expression for lagrangian that ends up looking same as classical. well ok

### ¶STRT on Lagrangian being extreme value/minimum physicslagrangiantoblog

#### ¶ lagrangian formalism - Confusion regarding the principle of least action in Landau & Lifshitz "The Classical Theory of Fields" - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangiantoblog

conjugate points; about infinitesimal path, characteristic scale of the problem

conditions for lagrangian regularity and conjugate points

#### ¶ lagrangian formalism - Hamilton's Principle - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangiantoblog

Basically, the whole thing is summarized in a nutshell in Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics (Addison–Wesley, Reading, MA, 1964), Vol. II, Chap. 19. (I think, please correct me if I'm wrong here). The fundamental idea is that the action integral defines the quantum mechanical amplitude for the position of the particle, and the amplitude is stable to interference effects (-->has nonzero probability of occurrence) only at extrema or saddle points of the action integral. The particle really does explore all alternative paths probabilistically.

#### ¶ http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Principle_of_least_action#When_Action_is_a_Minimum physicslagrangiantoblog

or some 1D potentials V(x) (those with ∂2V/∂x2≤0 everywhere), e.g. V(x)=0 , V(x)=mgx , and V(x)=−Cx2 , all true trajectories have minimum S . For most potentials, however, only sufficiently short true trajectories have minimum action; the others have an action saddle point. "Sufficiently short" means that the final space-time event occurs before the so-called kinetic focus event of the trajectory.

#### ¶ Even more trivial example when least action principle doesn't work: Принцип наименьшего действия. Часть 2 / Хабр physicslagrangiantoblog

На рисунке нарисованы обе физически возможные траектории движения шара. Зеленая траектория соответствует покоящемуся шару, в то время как синяя соответствует шару, отскочившему от пружинящей стенки. Однако минимальным действием обладает только одна из них, а именно первая! У второй траектории действие больше. Получается, что в данной задаче имеются две физически возможных траектории и всего одна с минимальным действием. Т.е. в данном случае принцип наименьшего действия не работает.

### ¶TODO Лагранжиан L {\displaystyle L} L называется вырожденным, если его оператор Эйлера — Лагранжа удовлетворяет нетривиальным тождествам Нётер. В этом случае уравнения Эйлера — Лагранжа не являются независимыми physicslagrangian

## ¶ Legendre transform physics

### ¶ nice intuition in terms of areas https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/69374/40624 physics

### ¶ Преобразование Лежандра — Википедия https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%9B%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B0 physicslagrangian

#### ¶ В том случае, когда лагранжиан не вырожден по скоростям, то есть physicslagrangian

{\displaystyle p=\nabla _{u}L(q,u)\neq 0,} {\displaystyle p=\nabla _{u}L(q,u)\neq 0,} можно сделать преобразование Лежандра по скоростям и получить новую функцию, называемую гамильтонианом:

### ¶ Making Sense of the Legendre Transform physics

nice pdf, basically they say it's just a different view, sometimes it's easier to control the derivative

they introduce generalised forces too

that's not surprising there is connection with thermodynamics, they show some stuff with Gibbs energy etc

https://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2012/01/19/classical-mechanics-versus-thermodynamics-part-1/

### ¶So the Fourier transform and the Legendre transform may be interpreted as the same thing, just over different semirings. http://blog.sigfpe.com/2005/10/quantum-mechanics-and-fourier-legendre.html physics

fucking hell!! that's so cool

### ¶https://physicstravelguide.com/advanced_tools/legendre_transformation#tab__concrete (Legendre transformation is "zero temperature limit" of the Laplace Transformation) physics

### ¶http://blog.jessriedel.com/2017/06/28/legendre-transform/ physics

Two convex functions f and g are Legendre transforms of each other when their first derivatives are inverse functions:

and another nice plot with areas intuition as well

All of the dynamical laws are constructed from derivatives of H and L, and we decline to specify an additive constant for the same reason we do so with conservative potentialsi and, more generally, anti-derivatives.

## ¶TODO Hamiltonian physics

### ¶has some meaning in statistical physics physics

### ¶TODO something about Poisson brackets physics

### ¶configuration space with dimension n: 2n Hamilton equations of first order; n Euler-Lagrange of second order physics

### ¶Hamiltonians are easier to find transformations to canonical coordinates physics

### ¶ is hamiltonian same thing as energy? physics

#### ¶TODO https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/11905/when-is-the-hamiltonian-of-a-system-not-equal-to-its-total-energy?noredirect=1&lq=1 physics

#### ¶ classical mechanics - Example where Hamiltonian \(H \neq T+V=E\), but \(E=T+V\) is conserved - Physics Stack Exchange physics

## ¶[A] Post about lagrangians? physicstoblog

### ¶TODO [B] Please provide nonexamples or made up examples. If they are technical even a prompt for where to look would be good. It's way harder to google if you dont know what to google physicstobloglagrangian

### ¶[C] Kevin Boone's Web site http://www.kevinboone.net/gateaux.html physicstobloglagrangian

nice, demo of second variation, some nontrivial EL equation

### ¶STRT [C] about euler lagrange equations and runge kutta? physicstoblog

### ¶STRT writing about my experiments with lagrangian physicstobloglagrangian

## ¶STRT [B] physics sim for phase space *repos/physics-sim* physicsstudyvizlagrangian

## ¶TODO [B] additional term depending on velocity is kinda like time transformation? physicstostudylagrangian

## ¶[B] How are symmetries precisely defined? - Physics Stack Exchange physics

symmetry is transformation of a (mathematical?) model that doesn't change the physics it predicts

## ¶-----–— -------–— review later… physics

## ¶[C] homework and exercises - Lagrangian in a system with a specific velocity dependent potential - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian

## ¶------–— ---------–— needs review physics

## ¶STRT [B] baez lagrangian mechanics http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/classical/ physicsbaez

### ¶principle of minumum energy explanation 1.2.2 physicsbaez

### ¶p.33 special relativity physicsbaez

Many Lagrangiansdothis,butthe\best"oneshouldgive anactionthatisindependentoftheparameterizationofthepath|sincetheparameterizationis\unphysical":it can'tbe measured.Sotheaction

### ¶gauge symmetries physicsbaez

Thesesymmetriesgive conservedquantitiesthatworkouttoequalzero!

gauge symmetries result in conserved quantities… which are just equal to zero

### ¶p46 cool analogy between refraction and riemannian metric in GR physicsbaez

## ¶STRT [B] Are the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian always convex functions? - Physics Stack Exchange physicslagrangian

### ¶ also good answer, basically explaining that it's not great to impose convexity conditions on only one set of canonical coordinates https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/104279/40624 physicslagrangian

In conclusion, convexity does not seem to be a first principle per se, but rather a consequence of the type of QFTs that we typically are able to make sense of. It might be that it is possible to give a non-perturbative definition of a non-convex (but unitary) theory.

### ¶ https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/103997/are-the-hamiltonian-and-lagrangian-always-convex-functions#comment760950_339519 physicslagrangian

hmm that's interesting, he got a reply about considering sheets of the hamiltonian, each sheet convex… so maybe it does make sense??

## ¶[B] Proof by Picture physicsviz

## ¶STRT [B] book: Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics physics

### ¶[B] Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics: Chapter 7 physics

The Lagrangian L must be interpreted as a function of the position and velocity components qi and q˙i, so that the partial derivatives make sense, but then in order for the time derivative d/dt to make sense solution paths must have been inserted into the partial derivatives of the Lagrangian to make functions of time. The traditional use of ambiguous notation is convenient in simple situations, but in more complicated situations it can be a serious handicap to clear reasoning. In order that the reasoning be clear and unambiguous, we have adopted a more precise mathematical notation. Our notation is functional and follows that of modern mathematical presentations. An introduction to our functional notation is in an appendix.

## ¶[C] classification of critical points: Notes & HW for Section 6.1 physics

- node

all trajectories approach/receed point, and every trajectory is tangent to a straight line through the point - saddle

two trajectories approach point, all other recede - spiral

trajectories 'wind around' point

same as node, but no approach direction? (hence no tangent) - center

all nearby trajectories are concentric closed curves

stability: a critical point is stable if trajectories remain nearby for t > 0; asymptitically stable if approach the point as t -> infty

stability determined by eigenvalues (complex, sign of real part etc)

## ¶TODO [A] Ostrogradsky's theorem on Hamiltonian instability - Scholarpedia physicslagrangians

The assumption that ∂2L∂x˙2≠0 is known as nondegeneracy. If the Lagrangian is nondegenerate one can write (1) in the form Newton assumed so long ago for the laws of physics,

### ¶ ok, seems sort of relevant about the term with squared velocity in the lagrangian? physicslagrangianstoblog

## ¶[B] Lagrangian formalism for fields - Scholarpedia physicslagrangianspinor

### ¶ pretty good motivation for the shape of lagrangian and examples with different kinds of fields physicslagrangianspinor

## ¶[C] Derivation of one-dimensional Euler–Lagrange equation physics

Derivation of one-dimensional Euler–Lagrange equation – this section is actually the one that makes sense of it

## ¶[B] Valentin Fadeev (@ValFadeev) on Twitter: "Hamiltonian or Lagrangian? Why choose when you can have the best of both (provided you have some cyclic coordinates). Enter Routhian. From L&L "Mechanics" §41. physics

## ¶STRT [B] Chapter 7. Lagrangian Mechanics physics

## ¶[C] action principle for SR http://fma.if.usp.br/~amsilva/Livros/Zwiebach/chapter5.pdf physicsrelativity

infer ansatz for action from dimensional analysis

S_{nonrel} = int 1/2 m v^{2}(t) dt

hamilton's equation: dv/dt = 0, hence constant velocity

doesn't work for sr, rationale: is not forbidding v > c.

require action to be Lorentz scalar

S = -mc int ds – in the nonrelativistic limit results in same physics ans nonrel lagrangian

also, that explains the fact that particle traces the path minimizing spacetime interval

momentum and hamiltonian – coincide with energy

reparameterisation: express invariant via square root of metric and coord. derivatives

right, and we get euler-lagrange equations as a result d^{2} x^{u}/ds^{2} = 0 – basically 4-velocity is constant!

guessing electric charge lagrangian..

### ¶TODO also problems physicsrelativity

### ¶TODO nice book, read more from it? physicsrelativity

## ¶TODO [C] Zero Hamiltonian and its energies | Physics Forums physics

First of all, you are not understanding what he Hamiltonian is. The Hamiltonian is not the value of the energy, it is a relationship between position and momentum for a particular system. If the Hamiltonian is p^2 + q^2, and the value of p^2 + q^2 is zero, then the Hamiltonian is p^2 + q^2, not zero. It is analogous to Bush being the president. Bush is the current VALUE of "president", but the concept of president is not synonymous with "Bush".

### ¶ eh, they are talking about invariance by reparametrization, but I don't think I really understand what they mean… physics

## ¶TODO [C] hmm, to visualise phase trajectories, we can just do 3D plot, then we know that the particle is moving along isolines physicshamiltonianviz

## ¶TODO [C] Isotropic lagrangian velocity physicslagrangian

https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/212909/lagrangian-is-isotropic-in-space

### ¶ Now since space is isotropic, L should be independent of velocity v⃗ , and should in fact be a function of |v⃗ |2. physicslagrangian

## ¶STRT [C] discrete lagrangian? vary it on space of matrices?? physicsthink

### ¶ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variational_integrator physicsthink

## ¶TODO [C] Задачка на Лагранжиан : Помогите решить / разобраться (Ф) - Страница 3 physics

les в сообщении #552466 писал(а): И как в таком случае вводят импульсы? Связями. Если интеренсно, посмотрите книгу Дирак, "Принципы квантовой механики". Бонус-глава "Лекции по квантовой механике бы очень рекомендовал замечательную книгу Гитман Д.М., Тютин И.В. Каноническое квантование полей со связями. Думаю, ТС хватит прочитать первые две главы, чтобы получить ответы на инересующие в

## ¶[C] In classical mechanics, the state of a system is determined by a point in phase space physicslagrangian

It's unique! In the same way as quantum state is unique

## ¶[C] lagrangian formalism - What is the difference between a complex scalar field and two real scalar fields? - Physics Stack Exchange physics

They're identical. Typically, we use complex fields if we have a U(1)U(1) symmetry, or some more complicated gauge group with complex representations. Incidentally, the same comment applies to whether we use Majorana spinors or Weyl spinors.

## ¶[C] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostrogradsky_instability – explanation why differential equations of orders higher than two do not appear in physics physicsmathdiffeq

### ¶ http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Ostrogradsky%27s_theorem_on_Hamiltonian_instability more detailed explanation physicsmathdiffeq

## ¶[C] http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~idolga/lecturenotes.html physicsmathlagrangian

shit.. some interesting mathematical details about metric from the very beginning

## ¶[C] What is a Lagrangian? What is the action? Why does the principle of least (stationary) action work? : askscience physicslagrangian

Although the action S may not generally have a meaningful interpretation, there is an alternative formulation of the EL-equations which gives an equation that gives the value of S directly but not the function that achieves the minimum value of S. This equation is called the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and is also a very widely studied equation, particularly in the context of conservation laws and symplectic geometry. The standard method of solving the HJ-equation is by the method of characteristics. The characteristic equations are precisely the Hamiltonian equations also learned in a typical mechanics course.

### ¶[C] What is a Lagrangian? What is the action? Why does the principle of least (stationary) action work? : askscience physicslagrangian

At this point you can look in any standard text to see what happens next. The gold standard in calculus of variations is the text by Gelfand & Fomin (I strongly recommend this text, and it's also very cheap). The punchline here is twofold. The minimum value of S is guaranteed to exist under certain conditions on L. (Most of the standard theorems require some sort of convexity condition on L.) Under the same conditions, the minimum value of S (and which functions achieve that minimum) can be found by solving the associated Euler-Lagrange equations, which is a set of coupled, non-linear partial differential equations. (The EL-equations are found by using L.)

### ¶[C] What is a Lagrangian? What is the action? Why does the principle of least (stationary) action work? : askscience physicslagrangian

This study started in the 1930s (?), and Douglas discovered necessary and sufficient conditions for a Lagrangian to exist. These conditions, which you would think should be called the Douglas conditions, are called the Helmholtz conditions. (Douglas was a mathematician who won a Fields Medal for his work in the calculus of variations, specifically in the theory of minimal surfaces (think: soap films).) These conditions though are not at all easy to verify though. The conditions are of the form "Lagrangian exists if there is a non-singular matrix G such that (1), (2), and (3)". The first condition is purely algebraic, the second condition is that a certain ODE for the components of G have a solution, and the third condition is that a certain system of coupled PDE's for the components of G have a solution. The third condition is the one that is not at all easy to verify.

## ¶TODO [C] Book_{Chapter}_{Lagrangian.pdf} https://drive.google.com/file/d/11dVJarBOuYpYXpfY-Jnu4pyp-_mQop5b/view physics

(old link) http://www.physics-quest.org/Book_Chapter_Lagrangian.pdf

whoa. that's something interesitng

### ¶ other stuff is interesting as well http://physics-quest.org/ physics

## ¶[B] Introduction to the Modern Theory of Dynamical Systems - Anatole Katok, Boris Hasselblatt - Google Books physicslagrangian

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9nL7ZX8Djp4C&pg=PA367&lpg=PA367&dq=%22euler+lagrange%22+solutions+%22global+minimum%22&source=bl&ots=oUmdX3lEHJ&sig=lWeYTxDvVFemkLadlfSg7rgc8_8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjF4c7ukoDfAhU9SxUIHatDDmYQ6AEwD3oECA8QAQ#v=onepage&q=%22euler%20lagrange%22%20solutions%20%22global%20minimum%22&f=false

sufficiently long segments cease to be the minimum..

## ¶TODO [D] Griffith classical mechanics physics

## ¶[D] Classical Mechanics physics

I guess I need to work out some simple classical system by myself

understand:

### ¶lagrangian (kinda + there was some intuition in baez notes?) physics

### ¶hamiltonian (bit more tricky) physics

### ¶poisson brackets: ??? physics

### ¶canonical coordinates and derivatives – why's that enough? or by definition of 'classical'? physics

### ¶???? physics

## ¶reddit: hamiltonian vs lagrangian physics

Furthermore, whereas in Lagrangian mechanics there is a dependence between the generalized coordinates q and their velocities (the latter being the time derivatives of the former), in Hamiltonian mechanics the momenta are to be regarded are independent from the generalized coordinates. With these new coordinates, one proceeds to demand again that the action is minimized, and, instead of the Euler-Lagrange equations, one finds what are known as Hamilton's canonical equations. Again these are the equations of motion of the system, which are to be solved in order to find the trajectory. One key difference is that if your system required N generalized coordinates, and thus N Euler-Lagrange equations, there will be 2N Hamilton canonical equations but they are "half as difficult" to solve. That's the best I can do without getting technical. Also, Hamiltonian mechanics is cooler, just saying.

I think this is sort of misleading, they talk about dependency again…

## ¶[C] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_coordinates physicsdrill

like normal coordinates, but without redudancy in constraints. They are independent; basically it means that for any generalised coordinates [tuple] there must be a valid system?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holonomic_constraints#Transformation_to_independent_generalized_coordinates

benefit of generalised coordinates is most apparent when considering double pendulum https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_coordinates#Double_pendulum

## ¶[D] some random notes physicslagrangianhamiltonian

x'^{2} + x^{2} = C^{2} – energy conservation

Force F(x); potential energy U(x) as integral of force

Take 1/2 m v^{2} + U(x) – call it "total energy", it is conserved

TODO what if force depends on time explicitly?

Law of physics: there exists a three-dimenstional potential!

Principle of least action

Hamiltonian from Lagrangian

dH/dt = - ∂ L / ∂ t

Lagrangian -> Euler-Lagrange equations

Holonomic constraints take form: f(q_{1}, … q_{n}, t) = 0

Holonomic system => L = K - U

Nonholomonic system: rubber ball allowed to roll, but not slide/spin

Lagrange multipliers and forces of constraint, Taylor 278

If coordinate q_{i} is ignorable (dL/dq_{i} = 0), the corresponding generalized momentum p_{i} = dL/dq'_{i} is conserved

H(q_{1} … q_{n}, p_{1} … p_{n})

q' = dH/dp

p' = -dH/dq

B = ∇ x A + ∇ S

A is defined up to the gradient of some scalar field, guage field

Poisson brackets

- {A, B} = - {B, A}
- {A + B, C} = {A, C} + {B, C}
- {a A, B} = a {A, B}
- {AB, C} = {A, C} B + A {B, C}

- {q
_{i}, q_{j}} = 0 - {p
_{i}, p_{j}} = 0 - {q
_{i}, p_{j}} = delta_{ij} - Q' = {Q, H} – change of quantity over time
- {Q, L
_{y}} – change of quantity over rotation

## ¶[A] Noether’s Theorem – A Quick Explanation (2019) physics

## ¶STRT [B] Phase plane analysis: examples physicstoblog

### ¶ useful for they see me flowin they hatin physicstoblog

## ¶[C] Lagrangian formulation of GR physicslagrangiangrelativity

ok, this is kind of on the right track, deriving GR lagrangian