show timestamps

Your configs suck? Try a real programming language. [see within blog graph]

Or yet another rant about YAML

In this post, I'll try to explain why I find most config formats frustrating to use and suggest that using a real programming language (i.e. general purpose one, like Python) is often (but not always) a feasible and more pleasant alternative for writing configs.

1 Most modern config formats suck

In this section, I'm mostly referring to JSON/YAML/TOML/ini files, which are the most common config formats I encounter.

I'll refer to such configs as plain configs. Not sure if there is a better name for it, please let me know!

An incomplete list of my frustrations:

  • JSON doesn't have comments, by design 🤯
  • bits of configs can't be reused

    For example, while YAML, in theory, supports reusing/including bits of the config (they call it anchors), some software like Github Actions doesn't support it

    Usually, you just don't have any means of reusing parts of your config and have to copy-paste.

  • can't contain any logic

    This is considered as a positive by many, but I would argue that when you can't define temporary variables, helper functions, substitute strings or concatenate lists, it's a bit fucked up.

    The workarounds (if present) are usually pretty horrible and impose cognitive overhead. Programming language constructs are reinvented from scratch:

    • variables and string interpolation
      • Ansible uses Jinja templates (!) for variable manipulations.
      • Github Actions use a custom syntax for that

        In addition, they've got their own set of functions to manipulate the variables. Have fun learning a new language you never wanted to!

    • scoping

      I.e. there are several custom scopes for env directive in Github Actions.

    • control flow
      • for loop: build matrices and 'excludes' always give me a headache
      • if statement: e.g. when in CircleCI

    "This is not structured data. This is programming masquerading as configuration."

  • can't be validated

    You can validate the config syntax itself (i.e. check JSON for correctness), but if you want more sophisticated semantic checks, you need to spend extra effort.

    This is kind of a consequence of not having logic in the config files. Typically you'll have to write a supplementary program to check your configs and remember to call it before passing to a program.

    Very few programs bother with that. Usually, your program crashes because of something that would be trivial to catch with any simple type system.

  • YAML simply stands out with its implicit conversions and portability issues (e.g. "The NOrway Problem")

    There are enough rants about it, so I'll just leave a link to a good one: "YAML: probably not so great after all".

Summary: we spend time learning useless syntax and reinventing programming constructs, instead of productive work.

2 Workarounds

So what happens when people encounter these problems? Often they end up using a 'real' (i.e. general purpose, Turing complete) programming language anyway:

  • you write a program to filter out custom comment syntax
  • you write a program to merge configs or use a templating engine
  • you write a program that 'evaluates' the config

    Often, you end up reimplementing an interpreter for a simple functional language in the process.

  • you write a program to validate the config

    For the most part, it's boilerplate for type checking. You're not only working on a solved problem but in addition, end up with mediocre error messages as a result.

All this stuff is unpleasant and distracts you from your main objective.

Perhaps you can see where I'm coming with this.

3 Use a real programming language

The idea is to write your config in your target programming language. I'll have Python in mind here, but the same idea can be applied to any dynamic enough language (e.g. Javascript/Ruby).

Then, you simply import/evaluate your config file and voila – you're done. That's it.

  • Toy example:

    from typing import NamedTuple
    class Person(NamedTuple):
        name: str
        age: int
    PEOPLE = [
        Person('Ann'  , 22),
        Person('Roger', 15),
        Person('Judy' , 49),
    Using the config:
    from pathlib import Path
    config = {}
    exec(Path('').read_text(), config)
    people = config['PEOPLE']
    [Person(name='Ann', age=22), Person(name='Roger', age=15), Person(name='Judy', age=49)]

I find it pretty neat. Let's see how it helps us with the problems I described:

  • comments: duh
  • includes: trivial, use imports

    You can even import the very package you're configuring. So you can define a DSL for configuration, which will be imported and used in the config file.

  • logic

    You have your language's syntax and libraries available to use. For example, something like pathlib alone can save you massive amounts of config duplication.

    Of course, one could go crazy and make it incomprehensible. But personally I'd rather accept potential for abusing the power of the language rather than being restricted.

  • validation

    You can keep validation logic right in the config, so it would be checked at the time of loading. Mature static analysis tools (i.e. JS flow/eslint/pylint/mypy) can be used to aid you.


Are there any problems with that approach? Sure:

  • interoperability

    Okay, maybe if your program is in Python it makes sense. But what if it isn't, or you'll rewrite it to another language (i.e. compiled, like c++) later.

    If you'll be running your software somewhere without an interpreter, then sure, good point. Modern FFI is tedious and linking against your config is going to be pretty tricky.

    In case of Python specifically, it's present in most modern OS distributions. So you might get away with the following:

    1. make your Python config executable
    2. in the main() function, build the config, convert to JSON and dump to the stdout

      This step is possible with no boilerplate due to Python's dynamic nature.

    3. in your c++ code, execute the Python config (i.e. use popen()), read the raw JSON and process

    Yep, you will still have to manually deserialize config in the c++ code. But I think that's at least not worse than only using JSON and editing it manually.

    Obviously that has a performance hit (i.e. milliseconds taken to run the Python interpreter). Make your own judgment whether it's acceptable for you. If the tool you're configuring is running for hours, you're probably going to be fine, or you can always generate the config in advance/cache.

  • general-purpose programming languages are harder to reason about

    This is somewhat subjective. Personally, I'd be more likely overwhelmed by an overly verbose plain config. I'd always prefer a neat and compact DSL.

    A large factor here is code style: I'm sure you can make your config file readable in almost any programming language, even for people not familiar with the language at all.

    However, I appreciate that my experience is different from other engineers (i.e. sysadmins) who would not trade off flexibility for the increase of configuration complexity.

  • general-purpose languages are hard to modify programmatically

    To some extent it overlaps with the previous point. For example, git config commands manipulates the .git/config file. It's easy to modify an INI file, because it's basically a dictionary, so you only have to locate the key in the config file and change a single line.

    If the config is (say) a Python program, the model can be much more complicated than a dictionary, and it might be tricky to modify settings programmatically. Most likely, you'll have to resort to only appending new code to the config, which may not always be enough.

    To me, it's a very strong point against code as a config. As counter-points:

    • not many programs have (or need) TUI/GUI for editing settings
    • the settings that belong to the UI are usually very simple, and possible to adjust by appending only

      For example, Emacs customization interface is backed by an Elisp config.

The most serious issues are probably security and termination checking:

  • security

    I.e. if your config executes arbitrary code, then it may steal your passwords or format your hard drive.

    Whether security is actually something you need to think about depends on your threat model:

    • if your configs are supplied by third parties you don't trust, then I agree that plain configs are safer.
    • however, often, especially for end-user software, it's not the case

      Often the user controls their own config, and the program runs under the same permissions.

    In addition, this is something that can be potentially solved by sandboxing. Whether it's worth the effort depends on the nature of your project, but for something like CI executor you need a sandbox anyway.

    Also, note that using a plain config format doesn't necessarily save you from trouble. See "YAML: insecure by default".

  • termination checking

    Even if you don't care about security, you don't want your config to hang the program.

    Personally, I've never run into such issues, but here are some potential workarounds for that:

    • explicit timeout for loading the config
    • using a subset of the language might help, for example, Skylark

      Anyone knows examples of /conservative/static analysis tools that check for termination in general purpose languages?

      Note this is not the same as the Halting problem. You don't want to determine whether any program terminates, you want to figure out a reasonable subset of the language that terminates.

    Even if your config language is Turing incomplete, you might have to resort to using timeouts anyway:

    • your config can take very long time to evaluate, while taking finite time to complete in theory

      See "Why Dhall advertises the absence of Turing-completeness"

      While an Ackermann function is a contrived example, that means that if you truly care about malicious inputs, you want to sandbox anyway. If your configs support some form of including, you can very likely construct an input that will inflate it exponentially.

    Note that using a plain config doesn't mean it won't loop infinitely:

Why Python?

Some reasons I find Python specifically enjoyable for writing config files:

  • Python is present on almost all modern operating systems
  • Python syntax is considered simple (not a bad thing!), so hopefully Python configs aren't much harder to understand than plain configs
  • data classes, functions and generators form a basis for a compact DSL
  • typing annotations serve as documentation and validation at the same time

However, you can achieve a similarly pleasant experience in most modern programming languages (provided they are dynamic enough).

Who else does it?

Some projects that allow for using code as configuration:

  • Webpack, web asset bundler, uses a Javascript as a config
  • setuptools, the standard way of installing Python packages

    Allows using both setup.cfg and files. That way if you can't achieve something solely with plain config, you can fix this in, which gives you a balance between declarative and flexible.

  • Jupiter, interactive computing tool

    Uses a python file to configure the export.

  • Emacs: famously uses Elisp for its configuration

    While I'm not a fan of Elisp at all, it does make Emacs very flexible and it's possible to achieve any configuration you want.

    On the other hand, if you've ever read other people's Emacs setups, you can see it also demonstrates how things can get out of hand when you allow a general purpose language for configuration.

  • Surfingkeys browser extension: uses a Javascript DSL for configuration
  • Gradle provides Groovy and Kotlin DSLs for writing build files
  • Pyinfra automates configuration/infrastructure deployment and uses standard Python

    I'm personally using it for some of my own infrastructure – and it's a massive relief after Ansible and its yaml crap.

    Here is an example of its DSL.

  • Awesome Window Manager uses Lua for configuration
  • Guix package manager: uses Guile Scheme for configuration
  • Pelican static site generator: uses Python for configuration

Some languages are designed specifically for configuration:

  • Bazel Skylark uses a subset of Python for describing build rules

    While it's deliberately restricted to ensure termination checking and determinism, configuring Bazel is orders of magnitude more pleasant than any other build system I've used.

  • Meson build system: borrows the syntax from Python
  • Nix: language designed specifically for the Nix package manager

    While a completely new language feels like an overkill, it's still nicer to work with than plain configs.

  • Dhall: language designed specifically for config files

    Dhall advertises itself as "JSON + functions + types + imports". And indeed, it looks great, and solves most of the issues I listed.

  • Jsonnet: JSON + variables + control flow

    See comparison with other configuration languages

Downsides of such languages is that they aren't widespread yet. If you don't have bindings for your target language, you'd end up parsing JSON again. However, at least it makes writing configs pleasant.

But again, if your program is written in Javascript and doesn't interact with other languages, why don't you just make the config Javascript?

4 What if you don't have a choice?

Some ways I've found to minimize the frustration while using plain configs:

  • write as little in config files as possible

    This typically applies to CI pipeline configs (i.e. Gitlab/Circle/Github Actions) or Dockerfiles.

    Often such configs are bloated with shell commands, which makes it impossible to run locally without copying line by line. And yeah, there are ways to debug, but they have a pretty slow feedback loop.

    • use tools that are better suited to set up local virtual environments, like tox-dev/tox
    • prefer helper shell scripts and call them from your pipeline

      It is a bit frustrating since it introduces indirection and scatters code around. But, as an upside, you can lint (e.g. shellcheck) your pipeline scripts, and make it easier to run locally.

      Sometimes you can get away if your pipeline is short, so use your own judgment.

    Let the CI only handle setting up a VM/container for you, caching the dependencies, and publishing artifacts.

  • generate the config instead of writing manually

    The downside is that the generated config may diverge if edited manually.

    You can add the warning comment that the config is autogenerated with the link to the generator, and make the config file read-only to discourage manual editing.

    In addition, if you're running CI, you can make the consistency check a part of the pipeline itself.

Updates from the comments (thanks everyone!):

6 --

A followup question, which I don't have an answer for: why is it that way? I'm sure Ansible/CircleCI or Github Actions are developed by talented engineers who have considered pros and cons of using YAML. Do the pros really outweigh the cons?

Open to all feedback, and feel free to share your config pain and how are you solving it!


  • [2020-04-11] Added P.S. section

7 [2020-04-11] P.S.

Thanks everyone for the discussions and comments!

There were some polar opinions involved, so I'd like to clarify the most common objections here:

  • "Programs as a config are a security nightmare"

    I admit that I have a programmer's mindset (as opposed to sysadmin's), and very likely underestimate the security risks.

    But again, I agree that executable configs are not always a good idea. You can still have the best of both worlds by providing a DSL for generating a plain config and consuming the plain config.

  • "If your config is a program, it might end up arbitrarily complex and incomprehensible"

    Sure, but again, it largely depends on the discipline. You can also make a plain config incomprehensible and hard to modify.

    The best compromise here is probably configuration languages like Dhall.

  • "What happens in 20 years, when there is no <insert programming language> around"

    That's a good point, but languages don't disappear in an eye blink. There will be plenty of time to adapt. In addition, if your software and config are written in the same language, the software will need to be rewritten anyway, which is a bigger problem.

    Also even plain config formats come and go. 20 years ago XML was common for configuration; how many times you've seen it lately? Does your programming language even include XML parser in the standard library?

  • "If your config is so complex you need a DSL, your design has gone wrong and your software sucks"

    Frankly, I've found many of such comments as very opinionated and not constructive, but I'll try to respond.

    Software comes in very different shapes and while having the simplest configuration possible is desirable (ideally, none!), sometimes it would change the very nature of the thing you're trying to develop. Sure, you can stop calling it 'software' and start calling a 'library' at this point, but I don't feel it changes the point of the discussion.

    Perhaps, my constructive takeaways from this argument would be:

    • think how flexible your configuration might have to be, and whether you need to give up on plain configs early

      A good example of this would be some mail filtering systems, that started simple and ended as Turing complete.

    • in the rapid development phase, resort to having a flexible config

      When/if your software matures, think about supporting plain configs or/and using a special configuration language.